学校将被逼到走投无路 Schools would be pushed into an impossible corner

上周澳洲社会和舆论在热烈讨论的一个传闻:使教会学校将有权利因为学生的性取向而开除学生。众多教会学校都觉得这个传闻不可思议,因为他们从未想过会做这样的决定。事实上,除了这个问题以外,澳洲社会还有更亟待解决的问题。比如:对于教会学校而言,能够自由地活出自己的信仰和信念究竟意味着什么。这正是人们期待鲁道克信仰自由审核的核心。

For the vast majority of religious schools, it was a shock to learn that they might be allowed to remove a student simply because of their sexual orientation—they had never considered that course of action. However, while that particular issue may have been a storm in a teacup, behind the furore of the last week, there are much bigger questions that need to be resolved. Like what it means for a religious community to be able to live in accordance with its deepest convictions and beliefs. That is the question the Ruddock Review was asked to address.

原文 Source:

https://www.smh.com.au/national/schools-would-be-pushed-into-an-impossible-corner-20181015-p509od.html?fbclid=IwAR2wHdVu5tK9DpAWm0rOr695Ka1m7YcM2A5vEXX2Mk3qJ_00c392eWY_Ljc

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修改歧视法可能会迫使以信仰为根基的学校改变其信仰或者关门大吉。

Changes to discrimination laws could compel faith-based schools to either change their convictions, or to close.

 

一个逐渐远离信仰追求的社会,可能很难理解什么是对信仰的坚持。与过往的成见有所不同,信仰通常指的是认真的思维方式、定期的自我审查、一次次的怀疑与辩证思考。拥有信仰也意味着相信在人力范围之外,有一个既定的规则来帮我们明白何为真实、正确和正义。

In a culture increasingly unfamiliar with religious conviction, it can be hard to understand what it’s like to have religious faith. Contrary to the stereotypes, faith usually means serious thought, regular self-examination, times of doubt and times of intellectual wrestle. It also means believing there is something, beyond ourselves, to which we have to refer when we are trying to understand what is true, right and just.

目前对于这个话题的讨论众说纷纭。对于性关系是否只能存在于已婚男女之间的讨论,不论是基督徒、穆斯林、犹太人和世俗无信仰者都无法对此话题达成共识。关于是否可以吃贝类或者我们死后的去处,社会也不能达成共识。但是所有的宗教人士都同意,他们的生活应该与他们的信仰教导一致。

In practice, this gets messy. Christians don’t all agree on whether or not sex is exclusively reserved for married men and women, and neither do all Muslims or Jews or secularists for that matter. They also don’t all agree on whether or not it is acceptable to eat shellfish or what happens to us when we die. But religious people all agree that their life should align with the teachings of the faith they have had passed on to them.

对于任何一个宗教社区而言,要持续运转,必须先从该团体所信仰的教导和经文上找出依据作为其道德准则。这就是为什么信仰自由对于有信仰的学校而言至关重要。

For a religious community to function, it needs to be able to resolve its moral and ethical decisions within itself, with reference to its sacred teachings and texts. It is not up to the government to make those decisions on its behalf. Ultimately, that is why issues of religious freedom are so substantial for a faith-based school.

教会学校是孩子受教育和学习的地方,同时也是在坚持一种精神生活、信念和信仰的背景下养育孩子的社区。这对于学校员工而言有特殊含义,那就是学校员工必须完全支持学校的信仰,因为员工是代表和促进学校文化和道德的重要人物。对于学校而言,这也意味着学校必须拥有塑造和实践校园文化的自由。这是教会学校存在的意义,也是许多家长择校的特殊考量因素。

Faith-based schools are places of education and learning, but they are also communities that educate in a context in which the spiritual life of the child is nurtured and the convictions and beliefs of that faith community are upheld. This particularly means that the staff of the school— the people who most substantially represent and carry forward that school’s culture and ethos —need to wholly support those convictions. It also means a school must have the freedom to shape its community life according to those beliefs. That is why the school exists and parents have the option of choosing that particular perspective.

信仰团体需要拥有自由,正如政治团体需要被赋予的自由一样。如果政治团体被迫聘用一些与他们基本的哲学理念完全相反的人士,这些人士表述一些与该团体理念背道而驰的言论,哪怕只是私下的言论,这也会使这个团体变得一团乱甚至毫无意义。

This is like the freedom that is afforded to political parties. Political parties become a nonsense if they are forced to employ people who fundamentally disagree with their philosophy and who expound contrary views even if only in their private life.

同性婚姻的辩论是关于社会是否应该让人们以自己看为重要的信念和方式来生活,这些人之前并没有得到这样的法律许可。然而,如果基于信仰而建立的教会学校选择聘用那些与学校信仰相符合的员工成为非法行为,那就完全与这场辩论的初衷背道而驰。这使那些有宗教信仰的人们无法按照自己内心的良知去做选择。

The same-sex marriage debate was about whether we should let people live in a way that is important to them and consistent with their convictions, when they have previously not been permitted to do so. The argument to outlaw a school’s ability to select staff who share their beliefs is the complete opposite. It is restricting a people of religious faith from acting in a way that is consistent with their conscience.

在实际操作上,教会学校对其基本信条和行事原则的总结也有所不同。在所有的教会中,目前也是对许多议题都有不同的看法和辩论。但是究竟遵从怎样的信条,应该由信仰团体内部决定。迫使学校聘用与本校信仰不同的员工,会将教会学校逼迫到走投无路的境地。那也意味着,教会学校要么改变信仰,要么关门大吉,很难再有第三条路。

In practice, religious schools reach different conclusions about what the essential doctrines and principles of their school will be. Certainly in the wider church, this is a time of serious disagreement and debate with many in the pews holding a range of issues. But the work of determining doctrine has to happen within religious communities themselves. To suggest that schools should be compelled to employ staff who do not share the school’s convictions, is to push those schools into an impossible corner. It means compelling them to either change their convictions, or to close. It is hard to envisage another option.

在议会中,辩论的两方都常常提醒民众他们会致力于给予民众教育选择权。家庭和社区应该有权利选择如何养育自己的孩子。教会学校只是相对而言比较小的教育团体。教会学校的所有的员工、家长和学生在进入学校时,都知道该校的价值观与信仰。没有人会强迫与本校价值观和信仰不同的人来学校工作。教会学校给了所有人来本校与不来本校的选择权。

Both sides of Parliament regularly remind the public of their commitment to choice in education. Families and communities should have choice in how they raise their children. Faith-based schools are just one, relatively small, part of the education landscape. All staff, parents and students know about a religious school’s values and beliefs before they sign up to be a part of that school. No one is compelled to work or study at a school whose values and beliefs they do not agree with. But what these schools do offer, is an option—one among many—for families or employees to select.

如果我们真正尊崇多元化,我们应该允许我们的社会中有不同的信仰。这意味着,允许和尊重不同的观点,允许人们遵从或实践他们的信仰。

If we are serious about diversity, we have to allow different beliefs to have a place in our society. This means accepting and respecting that different views are deeply held by different people and allowing those beliefs to be honestly followed.

我们这周所辩论的,不仅仅是教会学校的聘用制度,而是我们是否允许政府用强权政治来取代社会中的多元化。如果我们允许这样的强权政治,那么这不仅仅是教会学校在人事聘用制度上的妥协,也不仅仅是教会团体会遭殃。而是整个多元化社会结构都将被削弱。

What we are set to debate this week is not simply the hiring policies of religious schools, but whether or not we want to see pluralism replaced with an iron-fisted style of secularism in which all views have to fall into line with what a government decides. If we choose that path, we compromise much more than the hiring practices of a few schools and it is not just religious communities that will suffer. The whole fabric of our community life will be weakened.